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This volume lives up to its subtitle--"How Advertising Succeeds in a Multimedia Age"--by detailing the continuing transformation of advertising into the digital age. Springer (Buckinghamshire Univ., UK) debunks the notion that the "old" advertising is dead and that a new age has been revealed. Rather, he traces technology-driven change and the opportunities that expand "old" conventional wisdom in the new operating environment of digital media. Springer accomplishes this by first presenting 50 advertising campaigns that operationalize this transformation by employing new digital advertising platforms and techniques, and then buttressing the cases with an in-depth, well-written theoretical discussion. The organization, graphics, and text are all styled as a "print" Web site that allows the reader to either delve into specific content or read the book in a sequential mode. The text is further supported by a dynamic Web site that keeps the content fresh and current. This is a marvelous handbook for dealing with the rapidly changing and expanding world of advertising. Summing Up: Highly recommended. General readers; students at all levels; faculty and practitioners.
Barry (advertising design, Syracuse Univ.) has compiled an extensive collection of "hand drawn roughs" that form the bases for many well-known ads, e.g., the memorable Jaws movie poster, Guinness beer, the Mini Cooper, Cesar dog food, Dr. Scholl's, Altoids, and other products. The author's intent was to re-create the look of an artist's sketchbook and reveal the design concept behind the ads, but his light gray pencil drawings, surrounded by gray backgrounds and gray text, lack visual contrast and are difficult to discern. Nor does the reader get to see the finished ads that resulted from these "thumbnail" beginnings. Thus, those unfamiliar with the ads will not know how the concepts actually translated into the final work. As a result, although the idea behind this book is good, it misses the mark in execution. In addition to the drawings, this work includes useful sections on advertising strategy, campaigns, execution, and media characteristics. Summing Up: Recommended. For a narrow audience of advertising design students at all levels, as well as practitioners.
Altstiel (creative director and partner at a Milwaukee marketing communications agency; adjunct instructor, Marquette Univ.) and Grow (advertising and public relations, Marquette Univ.) have produced a well-organized, well-written text useful for advertising copywriting and related courses. The authors discuss the elements of writing and designing advertising--from branding and strategy to concepts and campaigns. Containing 17 chapters, the book covers topics such as advertising, marketing communications, integrated marketing communications, and components of a campaign, as well as the specifics of writing copy (e.g., features, benefits, headlines, subheads, taglines, and body copy). Some chapters focus on various media, including magazines, newspapers, out-of-home, radio, television, and digital, while others deal with direct marketing, sales promotion, and business-to-business advertising. Some may think the authors discuss more topics than are necessary for a text about creating advertising. The last chapter focuses on what students need to do and know to land a job. The book contains interesting examples and exercises throughout, as well as an appendix and index. It should appeal to upper-division and graduate students and faculty. Summing Up: Recommended. Academic collections, upper-division undergraduate and up.
Consultants Wilson and Wauson have written this new handbook, published by the American Management Association, for a broad audience--those who work in corporate communications, marketing, human resources, and sales, as well as technical writers, grant writers, public relations writers, and administrative assistants. But in reality, this hefty guide to business writing can be useful for anyone, in any profession, who has to write any kind of document, from memos and proposals to reports, manuals, and marketing materials. The book is thoughtfully arranged in three distinct sections. Section 1, "The Writing Process," includes tips and guidance on audience analysis, brainstorming, research, interviewing, outlining, drafts, editing, proofreading, and revisions. Section 2, "The Business Writer's Alphabetical Reference," features an extensive list of terms associated mainly with grammar, usage, and style, such as "unbiased language" and "synecdoche," which are defined and enhanced with examples and tables (e.g., for "Latin abbreviations," "action verbs" and "common clichés") and cross-referencing. Section 3, "Sample Business Documents," contains professional-looking samples of a variety of documents. Easy to use and easy to read, this handbook makes an excellent quick reference source for any collection and any person who needs to create businesslike documents. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Lower-level undergraduates and above; general readers.
This is a solid, comprehensive, and readable book, more history, though, than principles and practices. Its 39 essays blanket the field of journalism from 1690 to 2002, from Benjamin Harris to Ted Koppel; its contributors, including Margaret Blanchard and coeditor Sloan (both editors, Univ. of Alaska), are among the best theorists, teachers, practitioners, and reporters in the profession. Because the pieces are short, an average of nine pages, the reader gains only an introduction or a sweeping overview of the topics. With such limitations, essays with titles like "The Press and US Presidents" and "Technologies of New Gathering and Transmission" are teasers. But each essay includes a bibliography of selected readings and notes (many of the latter including additional bibliographic sources). This book provides excellent supplementary reading for journalism classes at all levels, and it will also be appreciated by lay readers.
This work is the first of three volumes planned to cover journalists who contributed to literary periodicals between the years 1741 and 1950. It treats 48 writers, 27 of whom have been treated in previous DLB volumes. (All but six are also included in the Dictionary of American Biography; the DAB entries, however, are often brief and lack the extensive bibliographies of primary and secondary works featured in the DLB.) This reviewer questions the repetition of writers: Washington Irving, for example, appears for the fifth time. All previously treated biographees, however, receive newly written entries, largely by different biographers than before. Lengthier biographies appear in earlier volumes that cover eras or movements, such as The American Renaissance in New England (DLB 1; CH, Jul '79) or American Colonial Writers (DLB 24 and 31; CH, Mar '85). The present biographies supplement those in previous volumes by focusing upon the writers' magazine contributions and by offering substantially different bibliographies of secondary works. Editor Riley (Virginia Polytechnic) provides a preface that reviews the history of American magazines. Recommended primarily because of the 19 authors previously untreated by DLB. Will be most useful to public and undergraduate libraries.
The 50 biobibliographic profiles that make up this latest addition to the impressive "DLB" series include some well-known writers--Louisa May Alcott, Bret Harte, James Russell Lowell, William Sydney Porter--but the majority are relatively obscure: Mary L. Booth, C. Chauncey Burr, Rollin M. Daggett, John Foster Kirk, John Ames Mitchell, Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin, John Brisben Walker, George Wilkes. A particular strength is the book's coverage of women active in magazine journalism during the latter half of the 19th century, including Amelia Bloomer, Jeanette Gilder, Lucy Stone, Victoria Woodhull, and the aforementioned Josephine Ruffin. Of the 50 writers treated, 20 have entries in previous "DLB" volumes, a high duplication rate but lower than that found in the first volume of this subseries, American Magazine Journalists, 1741-1950 (CH, Apr '89). When duplication does occur, newly prepared biographies emphasize the writer's contribution to the magazine press. The article on Porter, for instance, concentrates on his involvement with the humor journal The Rolling Stone in Texas between 1894 and 1895. Riley (Virginia Polytechnic), editor of all three "DLB" magazine journalist volumes (the forthcoming final volume will cover 1901-50), furnishes a concise history of magazine publishing for the period. Recommended for larger public and undergraduate libraries and essential for journalism collections.
Starting with the premise that the business press failed to adequately predict or explain the recession of the late 2000s, these nine essays (contributed by practicing journalists, academics from journalism schools, and one economist) attempt to explain what went wrong. Particular themes emerge. First, journalism itself was in decline. Many news outlets (print and broadcast) had drastically reduced staff, leaving those who remained with less time for in-depth, investigative work. Second, financial issues had become increasingly specialized and complex. Even experienced financial journalists struggled to understand derivatives, mortgage-backed securities, and collateralized debt obligations; explaining them to readers/viewers was even more difficult. Consequently, journalists became increasingly dependent on their sources--contacts on Wall Street and in the government--for information and explanations, but many of these sources had their own points of view, including a common interest in maintaining public confidence. A few contributors suggest that the public did not want to recognize the downsides of overconsumption and dependence on credit. As Schiffrin (School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia Univ.) concludes, as a result of the recession "journalists have had a crash course in recession economics, along with the rest of the country." For the most part, these are well-documented, objective analyses. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty and professionals.
Readable, authoritative biographies of approximately 500 men and women, from Mary Clemmer Ames to John Peter Zenger, who have contributed significantly to the development of journalism in the US from 1690 to the present. The biographies, most prepared by journalism professors, average one and a half to two pages in length and concentrate on basic career information; each entry concludes with a brief bibliography. McKerns (Ohio State) includes both print and broadcast journalists, some still alive though at the end of their careers, like Walter Cronkite and Vermont Royster. Some omissions are perplexing. For instance, Harrison Salisbury of The New York Times is here but neither of the paper's Sulzbergers (Arthur Hays or Arthur Ochs). Why Philip Graham but not his wife, Katharine, surely one of the most influential media managers of our time? Most of the notables in this book can be found in other standard sources, such as W.H. Taft's Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century Journalists (CH, Sep '86), D. Paneth's Encyclopedia of American Journalism (CH, Dec '83), and the "Dictionary of Literary Biography" volumes American Newspaper Journalists (4 v., 1983-85; v. 1, CH, Jun '84) and American Magazine Journalists (1988- ; CH, Apr, Sep '89). No other single volume, however, brings together as much biographical information on major US journalists. Enthusiastically recommended.
Exploring the mass media's ability to manufacture and transmit negative stereotypes of African American men, Rome (Univ. of Wisconsin, Parkside) examines the history of racial stereotypes in the mass media and traces the rise of the stereotype of the prototypical criminal as an African American male. This version of the criminal was, he shows, not always the accepted stereotype. Until after WW II, the mass media portrayed the outlaw as a glamorous, "bad" white male--e.g., Jesse James, Al Capone. This began to change in the 1950s; Rome identifies a number of factors that account for this, among them, law enforcement's and media's increasing reliance on the Uniform Crime Reports (created in 1929 to meet the need for statistical information). The UCR underreported crimes by whites (white-collar crime), thus disproportionately overrepresenting blacks in street crime. Popular culture gave content and color to the UCR and street crime--burglaries, robberies, drugs--by portraying criminals as young black men. The core of the book explores the stereotype of black males in television programming, film, and other forms of popular entertainment. The concluding chapter offers suggestions for "moving forward." Summing Up: Highly recommended. Lower-/upper-division undergraduates; general readers.
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This highly recommended study traces the reciprocal relationship between white racial attitudes and the presentation of blacks in the mass media. The authors have worked hard to make their carefully nuanced presentation, based on a significant body of empirical data, clear and understandable. Nevertheless, it is not an easy read. Entman and Rojecki demonstrate that the central attitude of most whites is the denial of both existing racism and white privilege. The largely unconscious racism in commercials, films, magazines, newspapers, and television (both news and entertainment) is demonstrated beyond debate. A telling illustration is the examination of a multitude of white reviews of major feature films in which there is not a single mention of their racist subtexts. Shows such as Bill Cosby's are two-edged swords making blacks visible while supporting white denial of racism. Many readers will use the cute term "politically correct" to disregard these findings and reinforce denial, but careful reading by practitioners may help them become aware of their largely unconscious racism. There is extensive annotation, charts, graphs, and tables as well as a Web cite for more extensive documentation.
With the essays gathered here, Vogel (Trinity College) eloquently demonstrates that the early black press's contribution to African American life and culture and mainstream American culture extended beyond slavery and elite African American issues. The black press redefined class, restaged race and nationhood, and reset the terms of public conversation. This volume will help the reader gain a fuller understanding of not just African American culture but also the varied cultural battles fought throughout the US's history. The collection begins in the 1820s, with the first print publication, and ends in the 21st century with online black presses. Each of the 13 essays examines an important phase of African American and mainstream American culture. Providing not just a historical account but also a cultural analysis, the volume combines history, culture, and theory in assessing the value, responsibilities, and challenges of the black press and other ethnic publications, past, present, and future. All collections.
This multidisciplinary volume provides engaging essays that undercut traditional assumptions about journalism. Rather than join the clamor of despair that denigrates the changing face of journalism in industrialized countries, the contributors embrace the shift toward visualization, personalization, sensationalism, narrativization, and convergence. In other words, they challenge scholars to rethink the paradigms that have driven their research. Four essays argue that tabloidization (the popularization and emotionalization of news) is not the scourge of the industry that other scholars have insisted. Instead, tabloid journalism offers opportunities for a kind of journalism that connects with audiences and keeps serious journalism alive. Four other essays take on the dread of technology, redefining the term itself and asking scholars to embrace digital communication, which can serve the loftier notions of good journalism. The authors of the last four essays discard unjustified notions of objectivity and truth in favor of multidimensional, diverse understandings of the world we live in, understandings that an enlightened journalism industry can assist by being the arbitrator, the trusted source of verifiable information. These essays invite the reader to see the opportunities for the renewal of journalism and contribute significant discussion to the debate over journalism's future. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty and professionals.
Numerous books provide strategies, guidelines, and best practices for communicating quantitative information. Edward Tufte, for example, considered by many the guru in the field, has written numerous acclaimed works (all published by Graphics Press): Envisioning Information (CH, Nov'90, 28-1398), Visual Display of Quantitative Information (CH, Nov'83; 2nd ed., 2001), and Cognitive Style of PowerPoint (2003). Miller (research methods and statistics, Rutgers) presents a holistic and accessible approach to understanding the issues in communicating numerical information by focusing on the entire writing process. Besides providing foundation principles for writing about numbers and exploring tools for displaying figures, the book combines statistical literacy with good writing. Key statistical concepts and practices are discussed in the context of "telling a story using numbers as evidence." Ideas are demonstrated using real-world examples. The book supplies guidelines for writing an introduction, data collection methodology, data analysis, results interpretation, conclusion, and preparing graphics. The language is unusually clear and concise, and the book's layout supports quick browsing. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Students and professionals across all disciplines, who write using quantitative information.
This title presents one of the most accessible and comprehensive looks at the subject. Offering a diverse, current snapshot of several areas of mass communication, Harris and Sanborn cite studies from several continents and highlight past and contemporary work to cover classic approaches to mass communication, such as the requisite discussion of sexual media, media violence, and the role of news media in contemporary society. In addition, the authors demonstrate great acumen with more contemporary approaches to media research, such as discussions of media's role in sparking insight (eudaimonia) as well as pleasure (hedonism). A closer read of the book at times reveals the authors' own notes and fears about media and society (including subtle references to gun-control laws and childhood obesity, among others), but these points are made not as pontifications but rather as contextualized provocations. That is, they are efforts to push the reader beyond the litany of citations so that they can understand the implications of research rather than the findings in isolation. A must-read for anyone with professional or even passing interest in the psychological impact of mass communication; the margins of this reviewer's copy are already full of lecture and research notes. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Lower-division undergraduates through faculty; general readers.
Is there purpose in blaming the media for society's problems? "No," answers sociologist Sternheimer (Univ. of Southern California), who retorts that blaming the media is an act to distract attention from addressing society's many ills. Each chapter begins with a media phobia, e.g., "Media Violence Causes Real Violence," or "Popular Culture Promotes Teen Sex," and how this fear may have emerged. Sternheimer then tackles the distraction and refocuses attention on the policy, values, and social practices that informed and influenced the social problem in the first place. For example, in her chapter "Media Phobia #2: Popular Culture Is Ruining Childhood," Sternheimer offers possible sources for such statements, then unravels a myriad of truths about childhood--the first being that "childhood is rooted in social, economic and political realities"--and how the notion of childhood in the present changes "based on the needs of society." The author cautions against focusing on the media as predator and turns readers' attention to themselves and the society they create around and conceivably "for" their children and families to better grasp how people create and perpetuate social problems. Well researched, with an attention to policy details, this book helps debunk the notion that media is the cause of society's ills. Summing Up: Highly recommended. General, undergraduate, and graduate collections. This review refers to an earlier edition.
Apfelbaum (writer/consultant) and Cezzar (Parsons The New School for Design) take a look at the changing practice of editorial design for magazines and periodicals. This book, which developed from the experiences of the authors at RES magazine, provides an introduction to the basics of graphic and digital design. The first section covers the foundations of design and helps readers understand how content is consumed in print, on the Web, and on mobile devices. The focus on mobile may be unique to this title among publications on magazine design. The second part of the book is dedicated to 19 international case studies that include The New York Times, The Huffington Post, BuzzFeed, and Vanity Fair Italia. Included are interviews with editors and designers from the magazines, and stand-alone interviews with well-known practitioners. This primer deserves a space on bookshelves next to Jan White's Editing by Design (3rd ed., 2003) and Yolanda Zappaterra's Art Direction + Editorial Design (2007). It will interest students and designers who are looking for inspiration and ideas for dealing with the converging markets of print, digital, and mobile. Summing Up: Recommended. Lower- and upper-level undergraduates, two-year technical program students, professionals, and general readers.
In Cheng's interesting and necessary work, she notes that contemporary graphic designers have available the software to create their own typefaces. This book will obviate the potential typographic damage done when types are manipulated by those unskilled in developing letterforms. Clients demand creative manipulation of type; too often, when letters are altered indiscriminately, the result is ugly and even illegible typography. Graphic designers who read this book will understand, in very thorough detail, the different parts of the Roman alphabet. Thoroughly illustrated with hundreds of type specimens, this book provides examples of how groups of letters work to create legibility and readability. Sections on the appropriate mechanisms to use when creating serif capitals, serif lowercase, sans serif capitals, sans serif lowercase, numbers, punctuation, diacritical marks, and spacing are wonderfully comprehensive and interestingly written. The geography of the book permits designers to find the part of the text necessary for a given design application. For example, if one were designing a logotype with a serif lowercase "c," the four pages devoted to that letter are easily found. This utility provides a superb reference for graphic designers and students. For libraries collecting in graphic design. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through graduate students; professionals; two-year technical program students.
Complementing the four previous "Dictionary of Literary Biography" volumes devoted to American journalists, this work focuses on owners, publishers, business managers, and editors of regional and national newspapers and chains active from 1950 to 1990. The 55 profiles of famous and less well known journalists, including seven women and three African Americans, assess the individuals' contributions to the history of newspaper publishing. The work is profusely illustrated and contains references to further biographical and historical information. An introduction provides an overview of the history of American journalism. There is also a cumulative index to the entire series. The text is accessible to patrons of public and academic libraries. Researchers wanting shorter biographical sketches of a broader range of 20th-century American radio, television, and newspaper journalists need access to Robert and Jane Downs's Journalists of the United States (1991) and Biographical Dictionary of American Journalism (CH, Jan'90).
Outstanding Academic Title
This book is cranky, idiosyncratic, witty, readable, funny, and beautifully written. An expert on and spokesperson for those with disabilities, Riley (English, Baruch College, CUNY, and a former journalist) takes no prisoners as he skewers the disability memoir, television and film depictions of disability, uses of disability in advertising, the world of insider disability print and electronic media, and more. He explains the "Reeve effect" ("unrelenting media sentimentality") and wonders if the California public library system has a "workbook ... with templates for the blind, deaf, returning veteran, and degenerative muscular or neurological disease movies." He notes that film and television "touch millions only to leave them as smugly ignorant as ever." In Appendix A, "Guidelines for Portraying People with Disabilities in the Media," he provides some helpful hints. The book is also a tour of how print and electronic media operate in general, so it will have broad use in communication and journalism collections. The index and bibliography provide entry for students and scholars into the emerging field of disability and media studies. Summing Up: Essential. All collections; all levels.
As a professor of journalism and senior editor of American Journalism Review, Stepp (Univ. of Maryland) is well qualified to write this book. The strength of the volume lies in Stepp's concise yet comprehensive approach to his subject. His definition of editing as "quality control" is deft, since that notion encompasses the jobs of all editors, from executive editor to copy editor, and provides an overarching theory to guide editors regardless of the skills and technology they employ. Whether managing a newsroom, guiding reporters on specific stories, coaching writers to do their best, or line-editing for grammar, style, and punctuation, the editor's basic responsibility, writes Stepp, is to achieve the highest quality possible at his or her level of production. Stepp discusses the role of editors, the history of editing, characteristics of good editors, multimedia issues, managing and encouraging people, deciding on content and coverage, copyediting, coaching writers, presentation, and legal and ethical issues. Sidebars offer personal experiences, tips, and checklists; most chapters conclude with real-work vignettes, which will serve as excellent fodder for group discussions. This is an excellent resource for those interested in editing and for professionals confronted with the challenges of running newsrooms and editing copy. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates, graduate students, technical-program students, professionals.
This encyclopedia is currently the only publication of its kind. (Sage has The Encyclopedia of Journalism in the works, slated to be released later this year.) It has 170 contributors and over 400 entries arranged alphabetically. According to the introduction, the volume addresses "Associations and Organizations," "Historical Overview and Practice," "Individuals," "Journalism in American History," "Laws, Acts and Legislation," "Print, Broadcast, Newsgroups and Corporations," and "Technologies." Each entry is signed, with suggestions for further reading. Unfortunately, this work has some drawbacks. It lacks visual appeal, having no cover art, photographs, or graphics (except the "Maps in the News" entry). Also, inclusion criteria are unclear. The encyclopedia includes entries on some peripherally related topics but lacks entries for major topics such as tabloid journalism. Nor does it address important issues such as the consolidation of the media or the media's battles with the FCC. Some typographical errors are evident. The authors should be applauded for trying to address a void in the literature, and they do a good job of including many journalistic "firsts." However, they attempt to cover too many facets of American journalism in a single volume. Summing Up: Optional. Undergraduates; general readers.
Outstanding Academic Title
An authoritative, multivolume encyclopedia dedicated to journalism has been needed for several years, and this set should prove worth the wait. The first four volumes cover nearly 1,500 sequentially numbered pages. Each features a 171-page index to the entire set. General editor Sterling (George Washington Univ.) has included a reader's guide and list of entries as prefaces to the first volume. Individual main entries are signed and include see also references and suggestions for further readings. The main entries are attractively designed and use a sufficient number of subheadings. Printed on acid-free paper, the text appears in a generous-sized font for easy reading, arranged in two columns per page. Glenn Lewis (York College, CUNY) edited the fifth volume, titled "Key Documents," which features the text of important court cases and documents essential to journalism, including the Bill of Rights and the Freedom of Information Act guide. It also includes various statements on ethical conduct, and documents that are relevant to the proliferation of journalism through the Internet, e.g., a Blogger's Code of Ethics; topics include intellectual property and privacy protections, and interactive media organizations. The sixth volume consists of appendixes, including one for awards in the field of journalism, e.g., the Pulitzer Prizes; and descriptions of special awards, e.g., the Pacemaker Award for college journalists. Other appendixes consist of a review of the state of journalistic freedom around the world arranged by country, and a substantial annotated bibliography titled "Journalism: A Guide to Recent Literature." This long-overdue publication combines well-written entries with essential supporting documents in one set. Its cost, considering its quality and comprehensiveness, is within reason. With the field of journalism contracting from the 20th-century's traditional venues and expanding into nontraditional ones, this title comes at an opportune time. It offers an overview of past practices, an examination of current conditions, and a glimpse into the future. Summing Up: Essential. Lower-level undergraduates and above.
While numerous other titles cover various aspects of the relationship between media and politics, The Encyclopedia of Media and Politics distinguishes itself as the only reference work focusing on the junction of the civic and the journalistic. A useful time line (1690-2006) highlighting major (primarily US) media and political events starts the encyclopedia. A lengthy in-depth essay on the intersection of media and politics helps provide context for the work overall. Over 300 entries, varying in length from a half page to three pages, cover a wide range of topics including individual pundits, anchors and other players, influential court cases and legislation, media bias, new media forms, and numerous other subjects related to the role of the media and its influence on the US political system. Each entry features a bibliography for additional reading. A thorough index and plentiful see and see also pointers make this an easy-to-navigate resource. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Library collections supporting journalism, political science, communication, public affairs, or related programs; lower-level undergraduates through professionals/practitioners; general readers.
Outstanding Academic Title
According to Aucoin (Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile), investigative journalism is the cornerstone of American democracy. He argues that the Founding Fathers endowed the press with a "privileged position as a check on the abuses of government, a canvasser of 'the merits and measures of public men of every description.'" Aucoin shows how investigative journalism has evolved over the years, from newspapers supporting political parties through the early investigations of social ills to the robber barons of the turn of the 20th century, to political corruption, Watergate, and the founding of IRE (Investigative Reporters and Editors, Inc., Web site, CH, Jul'02, 39-6241). Aucoin does a terrific job of making the history of journalism available to the reader. He walks a fine line between a superb piece of historical research and a readable history for the masses. The readability of the book suffers a little at the expense of his research, but that is a minor flaw in a book that will be invaluable to anyone interested in journalism. Summing Up: Essential. All readers; all levels.
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This book should be read and celebrated for many years by students and faculty in mass communication programs. Altschull (Johns Hopkins University) provides a well-documented history of the ideas underlying American journalism. Altschull sketches the writings and lives of Milton, Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Voltaire, Rosseau, Madison, Burke, Hegel, Mill, James, Dewey, inter alia, and explains how their ideas are reflected in contemporary beliefs about press freedoms and social responsibilities. In the process, Altschull details where concepts such as social progress, free expression, the watchdog, and self-righting principles emerged in European and North American philosophy. In style, scope, and clarity the book is similar to Will Durant's The Story of Philosophy; but unlike Durant, Altschlll focuses on the intellectual roots of the news media's role in a democratic society. The book has no real parallel, or competition, in journalism scholarship because it combines philosophy, ethics, and history with discussions of modern concepts in journalism. It is a rare example of journalism scholarship that is widely accessible to students at most college levels, and it should be widely used in mass communication programs. An excellent companion to the author's Agents of Power: The Role of the News Media in Human Affairs (1984), which compares and critiques international mass-media systems. The book features a complete collection of notes and suggestions for further readings. It merits the very highest recommendation for all journalism and mass-communication collections.
The end product of a symposium on foreign reporting held at Louisiana State University's Manship School of Mass Communication, this volume gathers essays that examine the subject from several perspectives yet produce a comprehensive, unified whole. Two major themes run through the essays: multiple sources and speed. With regard to the former, the essays reveal that the distinction between foreign and domestic news has disappeared. If someone in the US receives a report about events in the US via Al Jazeera, is that foreign or local news? At the same time, the sources of "news" have greatly expanded. The Kuwait government hired a high-powered Washington, DC, public relations firm to present its case after the Iraq invasion. If Iraq had taken this approach, the First Gulf War might never have occurred. The point: the public is no longer dependent on foreign correspondents from mainstream media. With regard to speed, the collection observes that, in former days, the time that elapsed between overseas events and reports of them allowed for thinking and evaluating; now reactions are immediate and sometimes ill advised. Is faster necessarily better? Each essay has endnotes, and the bibliography is good. Summing Up: Recommended. All readers, all levels.
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Writing for journalists rethinking their craft, student reporters, and those curious about how news writers approach stories, Willis (Univ. of Memphis) first discusses 11 traditional reporting orientations, ranging from storytelling to literary approaches to advocacy. He goes on to redefine these into 13 contemporary journalistic "roles," e.g., the "George Plimpton" approach (participatory journalism) and the "Larger Truth" perspective (the journalist provides socioeconomic or historical context). Willis notes an array of strategies news reporters can use to help readers, viewers, and listeners better understand a source's attitudes and demeanor. He also explains how journalists reporting on tragic and traumatic events (for example, 9/11) need to both report and withhold. An afterword--written by a physician, a television news producer, and a newspaper reporter--discusses newsroom stress management strategies when reporters and editors cover an intense civic, regional, or national tragedy. One of the most comprehensive and well-written accounts about journalistic orientations ever published, this up-to-date volume will be an excellent companion to Intimate Journalism: The Art and Craft of Reporting Everyday Life, ed. by Walt Harrington (1997), and Judith Sylvester and Suzanne Huffman's Women Journalists at Ground Zero: Covering Crisis (2002). Summing Up: Essential. All journalism and media studies collections, academic and public.
Including both new essays and revisions of essays that appeared in earlier editions (2nd ed., CH, Oct'06, 34-0735), this book tells a compelling story of the way ethnic and cultural groups are portrayed and how some of those images guide and misguide those who view them. Written in an accessible style, the essays examine numerous cultures and groupings--ethnic, ability, gender--along with international representations, animated images, and news representations. The diversity of the contributors makes for a balance in terms of insider/outside perspective. The gender section could be more inclusive; an examination of womanist and Latina feminism would have taken this section beyond its Eurocentric boundaries. Each chapter is of reasonable length for underclassmen, but content will also draw more experienced readers interested in theoretical perspectives. Summing Up: Recommended. Lower-division undergraduates through faculty; professionals; general readers.
Outstanding Academic Title
This energetic, crisp, lucidly written account of the origins and future of objective journalistic ethics is a gem. Drawing on his background in philosophy and a lengthy career in journalism, Ward (Univ. of British Columbia) opens with an exposition of philosophical issues in ethics, objectivity, and epistemology. Throughout his account avoids taking a postmodernist/relativist position, and eschews a simplistic, politically motivated, ideological interpretation. Ward's consideration of the commercial "newsbooks" of the 17th century forms the backdrop for a well-documented historical interpretation of the probable origins of journalistic objective ethics. In the end, Ward offers a replacement for the concept of traditional objective journalism in his theory of "pragmatic objectivity," which is set in a holistic conceptual framework inspired by Wittgenstein, Quine, and Rawls; this type of objectivity allows for journalistic interpretation, but requires that such interpretation be checked against the evidence. Summing Up: Highly recommended. All levels.
This book probes the impact of investigative reporting on public policy and challenges a widely held assumption that investigative journalism is generated within newsrooms without external influences. The authors follow the life span of six investigative stories, written or broadcast from 1981 to 1988, from the story's inception through its preparation and eventual public impact. The authors find that public officials and other expert policymakers are normally involved at the time of a newsroom decision to begin an investigation. This book is distinctive because the effect of each story on public opinion, governmental officials, and policymakers is empirically measured. The impact of investigative stories to change public and expert opinion is found to be inconsistent, which results in public-policy alternatives ranging from reassessing public employee job efficiency to extensive changes in regulatory law. The book is a rare example in journalism research where empirical methods and media sociology are combined to challenge conventional wisdom about the impact of the news media on society. The quality of the book's scholarship, combined with the news media's long-standing interest in investigative reporting, assures the text will find an audience among working journalists as well as news media scholars. The authors, who represent several academic disciplines and worked together at Northwestern University, provide complete footnotes as well as a complete explanation of their research methodology in the book's conclusion. Although opportunities for lively writing are occasionally overlooked, the book is very accessible to graduate students and is recommended for college library collections in journalism and mass communications.
Davis (Brigham Young Univ.) provides his readers with a fascinating discussion of the history of "going public" by members of this nation's highest judicial body. Davis's volume transports the reader back to the early years of the Court, and includes a discussion of the activities of members of the Roberts Court. Davis isolates a number of general reasons, institutional and individual, why members of the Court have tried to shape press coverage and public opinion. His book is also filled with examples of the various means that justices have used to shape perceptions of themselves and the institution; these include opinions, interviews, and speeches. While Davis's work is historically broad in its scope, a content analysis of stories from the New York Times and NBC Nightly News provides particular insight into the years from 1968 to 2007. This book will appeal to individuals interested in the Court, and students of the media will also find this book most interesting. Summing Up: Highly recommended. General readers, undergraduate students, graduate students, and research faculty.
Offering a significant foundational resource for anyone pursuing Latino/a media studies, Valdivia (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) points out that those interested in this subject need to familiarize themselves with the different traditions and approaches of media studies--production, textual/content analysis, audience and reception, effects and cognition. To that end, she offers a chapter on each. And she warns readers to be sensitive to the vast geographic, national, ethnic, language, culture, and gender differences found under the rubric of "Latino/a." One cannot, she argues, simply appropriate the techniques and paradigms used primarily to study white and/or black media producers and audiences. Especially useful are the two case studies, which she investigates through the lens of various media-studies approaches at the end of each chapter. One of these--"The Homicide Report," a blog created by the Los Angeles Times--chronicles the homicide victims of Los Angeles County, who are mostly people of color and Latino/as. The other is Jennifer Lopez, who has, Valdivia writes, "managed to turn her Latinidad into a marketable commodity." Summing Up: Highly recommended. Lower-division undergraduates through faculty and professionals.
The history of African Americans is reflected in various economic pursuits. Starting from the early 20th century, this book examines blacks as consumers and as participants in the advertising industry. Chambers (Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) begins with campaigns targeting blacks as an identifiable market segment. John H. Johnson, for example, launched Ebony magazine to compete with its white counterpart, Life. Johnson believed that brands such as Cadillac appealed to blacks as "a sign of affluence and standing in the black community." The Civil Rights Movement of the 1940s produced an upsurge of "Jackie Robinsons of advertising and selling," who established their own agencies or provided important consulting services for white companies. With the next wave of civil rights activism led by such organizations as the Congress of Racial Equality, advertising firms began to employ larger numbers of blacks, and many black entrepreneurs launched their own firms. Between the mid-1960s and 1970s, the industry attained a "golden age" of African American participation. As of 2006, however, Chambers notes this progress had slowed to a state of "continued underrepresentation" of social diversity. Overall, the study is a cogent analysis of an important aspect of race relations in the US. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduate through professional collections.
Hixson summarizes more than 200 major Supreme Court decisions, 1834 to 1986, on the free speech clause or the free press subclause of the First Amendment. Arranged in categories such as broadcasting, censorship, freedom of information, and obscentity, the case summaries review the circumstances of a case and summarize the opinion delivered, including the majority, concurring and dissenting opinions. Relevant prior decisions are referenced, as are pertinent law journal articles. A selective bibliography on the topic as a whole is included at the end of each section. All cases are indexed by name and by subject. This is not a textbook. A number of texts do an excellent job of commentary and analysis of Supreme Court and other court or commissions decisions. Donald M. Gillmore and Jerome A. Barron's Mass Communication Law: Cases & Comment (4th ed., 1984) offers lengthy, thorough discussion, as does Marc A. Franklin's Cases and Materials on Mass Media Law (2nd ed., 1982) and William E. Francois's Mass Media Law amd Regulation (4th ed., 1986). For Supreme Court cases only, Kenneth S. Devol's Mass Media and the Supreme Court: The Legacy of the Warren Years (2nd ed., Ch, May '77) contains major proportions of the written opinions from 1953 to 1969. Hixson's work is a quick reference to the main points of major decisions, written in lay terms. Rather expensive, but useful in medium to large collections, lower-division undergraduate level and up.
University of Virginia media studies faculty colleagues and spouses Press and Williams seem to have written this book primarily as an introductory-level textbook for media studies undergraduates. Using the understanding of "media environment" as not just a technological but also a social, political, and economic concept, they profile particular aspects of this basic idea in the contemporary digital environment, with chapters focusing on media control, democracy, pop culture, and gender and other inequalities. The book concludes with three so-called "insights" that only the newest students of new media would actually find insightful. Strong indexing and chapter-level reference lists may make this a good starting point for lower-level student research, but a host of other recent new media studies texts offer sound alternatives and/or complements: Martin Lister et al.'s New Media: A Critical Introduction (2nd ed., 2009) marries a similar introductory tone with greater coverage; Paul Levinson's New New Media (2009) offers much more specific discussion of particular technologies and case studies; and Pramond K. Nayar's An Introduction to New Media and Cybercultures (2010) covers somewhat overlapping territory as well. Summing Up: Optional. General and public collections; lower-level undergraduates.
Written by well-known media critics, these 15 essays revisit some familiar territory--for example, the real damage inflicted by media corporate concentration (which has been often and eloquently described by Ben Bagdikian) to the dissemination of information; the transformation of news broadcasts into entertainment shows and the ways in which information providers serve corporate rather than public interests; the radical right's often-repeated contention that liberal interests dominate the news media. The essays that can be singled out as special are those by Mark Cooper and by Cheryl Leanza and Harold Feld, who present clear action programs for fighting back. An aroused public succeeded in stopping the FCC's most recent attempted giveaway to broadcasters, and this action offers a model for regaining public control of the airwaves--which by law belong to the public. An FCC dedicated to the public's interest is important. Vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws would also help. Two essays lack documentation; the documentation on the others ranges from slight to substantial. The name index is incomplete but adequate. Summing Up: Optional. Undergraduate and general collections.
This book validates its topic by presenting a diverse array of global perspectives about journalistic objectivity with minimal framing or judgment by Maras (Univ. of Sydney, Australia). The first chapter provides a historical context and outlines the conceptual development of journalistic objectivity. Other chapters are devoted to objectivity's critics and defenders. A welcome chapter notes how longstanding interpretations of journalistic objectivity may or may not be obsolete in the Internet era. Maras provides a readable, well-researched book with examples mostly drawn from English-speaking nations. The book updates and adds to previous books that explore objectivity, such as Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel's The Elements of Journalism (2007) and News with a View (CH, Sep'12, 50-0113), edited by Burton St. John III and Kirsten A. Johnson. Helpful footnotes are provided. Recommended for collections in journalism practice, journalism history, and mass communication. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduate, graduate, research, and professional collections.
This is an extremely well researched text on the beginnings of photography, from the invention of the first photographic process, the daguerreotype process in 1839, to the development of the halftone process, enabling a printing press to print both photographic image and word. It is a brilliantly written history of photography, painstakingly researched and thoroughly documented and footnoted. The author weaves his history of the medium through its technological evolution. The images used to illustrate the book not only combine both classic with rarely seen photographs, but compare the original photograph to its rendition for use by the early journalistic press. Examples range from artists' drawings and engravings of daguerreotypes in the 1840s to the actual halftone reproduction of a photograph in the 1880s, the process still in use today. This book is conceptually well organized, nicely designed, and supplemented with a helpful glossary and detailed bibliography that would be useful for researchers. Highly recommended for all libraries.
Numerous women entered the emerging field of journalism at the turn of the 20th century, but until now they have been, Fahs (history, Univ. of California, Irvine) writes, "hiding in plain sight." The writings of these women not only helped shape the thoughts of women readers but also fostered conversations about culture and politics. Many of these female journalists relished the opportunity to be "out on assignment," doing what they considered real newspaper work. Fahs discusses several shifts that allowed women to enter print journalism: newspapers were seeking new readers, advertisers needed new customers, and editors wanted to create women's pages and features and they wanted women to write them. Women writers made these pages their own, with advice columns, undercover assignments, witty sketches, beauty advice, and recipes. Fahs's well-researched study ends with a chapter that moves toward suffrage. Newspaper writing gave women journalists wide public exposure that was dramatically different from the literary and journalistic writing of the previous century, which emphasized privacy and home. This well-written book includes vintage photographs and graphics. A most informative and enjoyable read. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty.
This book is a superbly designed and illustrated introduction to the successful presentation of a single image and an entire visual portfolio. Beginning with selection, strategy, and intent, photographer Holleley wisely asks those who create images to understand that the presentation of an image has a profound impact on what they are saying and how they mean it. After laying the intellectual foundation, Holleley provides a splendid review of appropriate processes, offering students and practitioners articulate ideas, effectively charted, that will assist in making visual ideas more interesting and more coherent. The text is engaging and comprehensive, accessible and authoritative; the only thing (a bit) ponderous about the book is the title. For the more advanced visual artist, the most interesting part of the book may be the final section, which discusses construction methods. Fascinating approaches to the creation of mattes, artist books, and portfolio boxes are beautifully diagrammed and explained. This is a brilliant introduction to the topic that teachers and librarians should recommend to their students. Summing Up: Essential. Libraries serving students in photography and the visual arts; lower-level undergraduates and above; general readers.
Henderson has distinguished himself in this popular, useful series with carefully crafted, well-balanced volumes on topics such as terrorism, campaign and election reform, and gun control. This book offers a cogent review of the controversies that swirl around the powerful news media; it is well written, with layout that is easy to skim. Henderson approaches a complex topic by first offering a summary of major journalistic issues (e.g., bias, values, politics), then covering differing perspectives on the issues. His substantial section on "The Law and the News Media" summarizes major court cases. Students having difficulty choosing or organizing a topic might begin with the chronology. The work includes a glossary and a brief biographical section covering the major players, from Zenger to Jayson Blair. Henderson cites Web-based resources and includes an extensive annotated bibliography. The abbreviated table of contents is balanced by a detailed index. This is a useful work. Summing Up: Recommended. General readers; lower-division undergraduates.
Reporting for Journalists introduces aspiring journalists to print, broadcast, and some Internet news skills. Since it was written for British readers and the examples of reporting and writing (and most citations) are from the UK, the volume will not be as useful as texts written for US students of journalism--e.g., News Reporting and Writing, by Brian Brooks et al. (7th ed., 2002), and Melvin Mencher's News Reporting and Writing (8th ed., 2000). Though Frost's discussion of journalism ethics is comparatively thin--which might be explained by the author's recent Media Ethics and Self-Regulation (Harlow, England: 2000)--the description of how news judgments are made is succinct and the chapter on using external sources to research a story is well written. In a refreshingly different part of the book, Frost (Univ. of Central Lancashire, UK) provides pragmatic advice on traveling to obtain news. And a well-conceived discussion of the news-production process includes helpful diagrams. The book succeeds in fostering interest in news and a journalism career without hyperbole or ignoring the news media's shortcomings and challenges. Recommended for extensive collections supporting the study of news writing and reporting. This review refers to an earlier edition.
This collection of research articles covers a variety of advertising topics, but it is not a practical guide for advertising practitioners, as the book's title may suggest. The content makes this work a worthwhile collection for any student of advertising. Editors Tellis (Univ. of Southern California) and Ambler (London Business School) have collected a series of writings that address a range of issues on advertising from a truly global perspective. Topics include the history of the industry, effectiveness of advertising, the strategic process involved in advertising, and ethical considerations and social impact of advertising. It would be nearly impossible to provide exhaustive coverage of advertising in one volume, but the editors have produced a work that offers insight into a variety of advertising issues in a compelling, well-organized manner. The handbook is a useful resource for practitioners as well as upper-division undergraduate and graduate students. Researchers and faculty members will find it a valuable supplement to their current collection of writings on advertising. Summing Up: Recommended. Academic collections, upper-division undergraduate and above, and practitioner libraries.
Streitmatter (American Univ.) provides an ambitious overview of the ways in which media have reflected changing sexual mores over the past 50 years. The author does not concern himself with the ubiquitous debate over whether media influence or merely reflect culture; he assumes a symbiotic relationship. He avoids heavy-handed moralizing as he tries to present the positive and negative aspects of viewing media as a source of sexual literacy: he argues that media's sexual content may actually be beneficial since it has the potential to educate receivers on difficult subjects such as sexual identity and risky behaviors. Well written and informative, this book is an excellent introduction to the way in which sex is presented in media, from television to cyberspace. Although it lacks a formal bibliography, it does includes bibliographic notes. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Lower-/upper-division undergraduates; technical program students; professionals; general readers.
Campbell (English and journalism, Lockhaven State University) has compiled a series of briefs of major cases in the area of media law as well as some prominent cases that have shaped First Amendment law. The title is somewhat misleading; the book covers two areas of media law--libel and privacy--but other areas such as journalist privilege, access to information, and free press/fair trial are not included. Rather than providing succinct summaries of the major points of law, Campbell treats each case more thoroughly by including background information, concurrences, dissents, and significance. He provides generally reliable analyses of the cases and the law established as well as excellent short paragraphs on the significance of the case. These summaries should prove useful to students of media law. The volume is superior to J. Hemmer Jr.'s two-volume Communication Under Law (1979-80), which contains more cases but which lacks the depth found in Campbell's study. Mercifully, this book is free from the pro-press tendentiousness that characterizes too many of the texts used in media law courses. Well written; contains full-case index organized alphabetically and chronologically. Upper-division undergraduates and above.
Providing fresh perspectives on journalism and the coverage of public affairs, Merritt and McCombs offer one of the first books to look at specific reporting challenges involved with civic or public journalism. Merritt discussed the conceptual adoption of some of the ideas applied here in his highly regarded Public Journalism and Public Life: Why Telling the News Is Not Enough (2nd ed., 1998). McCombs (Univ. of Texas, Austin) co-initiated the hypothesis that the press's selection of news affects public-policy priorities. The combination of Merritt and McCombs brings the rare authority of both a distinguished scholar and newspaper editor, each with a career of professional leadership. The authors first describe why journalism has the social responsibility to report public affairs comprehensively. In subsequent chapters they discuss the First Amendment imperative for journalists to account for politics and public deliberations at all governmental levels. The authors divide the audience for public affairs into three groups--information-seekers, monitors, onlookers--and in a memorable chapter provide tips for journalists to engage readers and viewers in public affairs. Though scholarly, the book is commendably accessible. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Collections in journalism, public affairs reporting, journalism education, public and civic journalism, and mass communication and society; all levels, from student to practitioner.
An excellent introduction to type and typography, this book is one of the best introductions currently in print. Beautifully accompanied by hundreds of color illustrations, type samples, and photographs, the text is well written and easily understood. This second edition (1st ed., CH, Jan'03, 40-2572) improves and expands on its predecessor. This is a more comprehensive explanation of the issues and questions faced by the contemporary typographer, written from an interesting British perspective. Chapters explain vocabulary, the various functions of type, the history and heritage of typography, the language and grammar of the printed page, the manufacture of type fonts, and the established approaches to typographic design. Beyond the basics, Baines and Haslam present fascinating examples and sophisticated solutions. Information regarding type description systems, typography and the Web, halation, the grid, typographic conventions, spatial information, and type in film and media will interest both beginners and more advanced typographers. The book includes a rich collection of appendixes; British and US keyboard maps; thorough glossary; interesting time line and bibliography; paper size charts; and a valuable list of designers and typographers. Summing Up: Highly recommended. General readers; lower-division undergraduates; professionals; two-year technical program students.
Benedict (Columbia Univ.) critiques the way that the print press covers sex crimes. The book demonstrates how both societal myths surrounding rape and entrenched habits of newsrooms have led the press to introduce bias into its coverage of sex crimes. Using a feminist perspective, Benedict extends her critique beyond the media to examine public attitudes toward women, sex, and violence, and to look at the role the press plays in establishing or reinforcing these attitudes. The book bases its arguments on the examination of four specific sex crime cases, all of which were prominently covered by the press during the last decade. Each case symbolizes a critical factor in public opinion about gender roles--marriage, ethnicity, class, and race--and these are used as differing frameworks through which to examine press and public attitudes toward sex crimes and women. In her case studies, the author analyzes the initial coverage of each crime, as well as interviewing the reporters and editors responsible for the stories. Background is provided by media analysis, history, press ethics, the sociology of crime, and other relevant fields. The book is well researched, clearly written, and accessible.
Whitt (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder) admits that she did not intend this book as an exhaustive study of women in American journalism, and indeed it is not, particularly in only 169 pages of text. What the author is quite successful in doing, though, is alerting readers to the unending possibilities of more serious, in-depth research into the lives and contributions by women to journalism and culture. Whitt provides a solid starting point, supplying the names of dozens of candidates for study; thousands of possibilities await scholars. She follows this mini-encyclopedia of familiar women in journalism with a review of the history of women and society pages, then proceeds to journalists who moved on to fiction, Eudora Welty being an obvious favorite. The author devotes almost a third of the book to women of the alternative press; she provides a separate insightful chapter on the lesbian press. Whitt writes with clarity and conviction--and she promises future books. If the reader feels somewhat short changed at times, the fault lies with the wide-ranging coverage, not with the author's treatment. Summing Up: Highly recommended. All readers, all levels.